To honor Marlon Riggs’ important cultural legacy as well as to facilitate the appreciation for and use of his work, we have created this Marlon Riggs Critical Resource page featuring articles, guides, transcripts and media.
This site offers a varied collection of resources on the life and works of Marlon Riggs. We have commissioned essays by scholars on the use of his films in the classroom as well as the influence of his documentary vision and practice on subsequent media artists.
There are links to scholarly and popular articles about Riggs’ oeuvre the reactions to
his most controversial film, Tongues Untied and suggestions for integrating his films
I Shall Not Be Removed, the only documentary on Riggs’ life and work can be streamed in its entirety for free on this site. It provides an intimate portrait of the groundbreaking documentarian. We also provide a link to watch the historic event in February 2013 celebrating Riggs at
Harlem’s Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.
There are opinion pieces by Riggs about his media activism, his fight for racial
and gender justice, against homophobia and racial essentialism.
The Marlon Riggs Papers, a wealth of production notes, letters and media
have very recently become available at Stanford University; our site provides
information about how to access this valuable new archival resource.
I Shall Not Be Removed
This 58 minute film biography by Karen Everett provides a compelling portrait of Marlon Riggs and the profound impact his work has had on colleagues and the culture. The documentary traces his development from a precocious childhood in the close-knit African American community of Fort Worth, Texas, through his political awakening at Harvard, to his final years as a courageous advocate for free expression and on behalf of stigmatized people everywhere. Clips from all eight of Marlon's films show how he evolved a unique experimental documentary style, mixing poetry and criticism, the personal and the political.
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
A Marlon Riggs Retrospective,
February 26 2013. Panel (from left to right) included Cornelius Moore (California Newsreel), moderator Steven G. Fullwood, Rhea Combs, and Al Cunningham. Streaming under the auspices of
the National Black Programming Consortium.
Rhea Combs is a Curator specializing in the Media Arts at the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture and author of Exceeding the Frame: Documentary Filmmaker Marlon T. Riggs as Cultural Agitator.
E. Patrick Johnson is Prof. of Performance Studies and African American Studies at Northwestern University. He is the co-editor of Black Queer Studies: A Critical Anthology, and author of Appropriating Blackness: Performance and the Politics of Authenticity and Sweet Tea: Black Gay Men of the South – An Oral History.
Marlon Riggs Papers at Stanford
The Marlon Riggs Papers in the Stanford University Libraries documents the life and career
of the documentary director, Marlon Troy Riggs (1957-1994). The majority of
the materials in the Collection are from the period between 1984 and Riggs' death in 1994,
the decade of his concentrated film-making activity, as well as more
personal materials from the late 1970s onwards. The Collection consists of
manuscript papers, films, and videotapes in various media formats, over 110 linear feet
of material in all. The manuscript papers include notes, correspondence, writings,
and office records. Their meticulous organization reflects Riggs’ care in documenting
his own work, ranging from his production process to the reception and controversies
surrounding his work.
For example, one important topic documented in the Papers is
the bold, barrier-breaking use of the fair use copyright exemption in Riggs' sampling
of broadcast materials in Color Adjustment. CBS challenged
Riggs over the use of footage from the Amos 'n' Andy show to document racial stereotyping
in broadcast television. The collection includes footage Riggs obtained of the
"The Rare Coin" and other episodes, interviews and voice-overs related to his
portrayal of the show, and tapes which reveal his editing of this material.
These documents are supplemented by files that provide information about the
acquisition of materials, interviews, mixing logs, production notes from the
Amos 'n' Andy television show, and the difficulties in obtaining copyright clearance
for materials used in Color Adjustment. Similarly, the collection documents the
national debate unleashed by Tongues Untied with respect
to public funding of controversial works and other critical moments in the reception
of Riggs’ creative work. In total, the Riggs Papers provide essential documentation
for research on Riggs’ life and oeuvre.
Dr. Vershawn Young and his colleagues at the University of Kentucky have assembled
the bibliography of materials on all of Marlon Riggs’ films, interviews, letters
and critical articles and their citations. The link is from the journal
African American Review. A highlight of this section is the information on
access to Long Train Running: The Story of the Oakland Blues the earliest
of Riggs’s films completed in 1981 (with co-producer, co-director and co-editor,
Peter Webster). This Emmy award-winning student documentary is about the history
of blues music in Oakland,CA following the migration of African Americans to the
East Bay after World War II.
Two Opinion pieces by Marlon Riggs
Right after the 1991 public TV broadcast of Tongues Untied, in the POV series, Riggs criticized PBS for its cowardice
in the face of censorious Congressional attacks which demanded that PBS and
NEA funding be eliminated. He also lamented the lack of support from mainstream
African American leadership and opinion-makers. Riggs’s article appeared in
the August 12, 1991 edition of Current, the publication dedicated to public media.
When 1992 Republican presidential hopeful Pat Buchanan illegally excerpted a section
of Tongues Untied in a campaign ad, Riggs responded in a October 6. 1992
New York Times op-ed criticizing the demagogic use of male homosexuality and race
to frighten segments of the U.S. public. Riggs entitled the piece
“Meet the New Willie Horton” to reference another fear mongering campaign ad
from the George H.W. Bush's 1988 presidential campaign.
An Interview with Marlon Riggs
Riggs’ interview provides the most illuminating and incisive window into
his overall perspectives on race, gender, sexuality, social change and
Posted here is a review of Tongues Untied by Black gay critic, Cary Alan Johnson
who called it “the film we’ve been waiting for”. He praises its innovation and complex
and intimate portrait of the Black gay experience. He lauds how it
“skillfully draws the connection between the oppression and anger of
African American gay men and that of the Black community as a whole”.
However the film’s last line, “Black Men Loving Black Men is the Revolutionary Act”
raised questions for him upon discovering that
Marlon Riggs’ partner was white. Riggs addressed the complex meaning of the statement in the aforementioned Release Print interview; however, it continues to be brought up after screenings of the film.
There is a chapter on Marlon Riggs in the book Queer Pollen: White Seduction, Black Male Homosexuality, and the Cinematic by David Gerstner. The other chapters are on writers James Baldwin and Richard Bruce Nugent.
BLACK IS...BLACK AIN'T 87 minutes, 1995 Marlon Riggs's final film debates Black identity, white critiques, sexism, patriarchy, homophobia, colorism and cultural nationalism.
COLOR ADJUSTMENT 88 minutes, 1991 Marlon Riggs' study of how network television absorbed deep-seated racial conflict into the non-threatening formats of primetime television. Clips from Amos 'n' Andy, Good Times, Roots and The Cosby Show among others are intercut with interviews with producers, cultural critics and actors.
ETHNIC NOTIONS 56 minutes, 1987 Scholars shed light on the origins and consequences of anti-Black stereotypes in popular culture from the Antebellum period to the Civil Rights era.
TONGUES UNTIED 55 minutes, 1989 A landmark and controversial personal documentary essay on experiences of black gay men and the search for identity. It has been critically acclaimed as one of the most important documentaries of the 20th century.