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A Framework for Group Facilitation
by Parker Johnson

(Shattering the Silences is a video produced and directed by Gail Pellett and Stanley Nelson )

"Our silence will not protect us."
- Audre Lorde

Shattering the Silences is the first film to look at campus life through the eyes of faculty of color. Eight scholars share their stories of life in the academy - how they transformed and were transformed by their respective disciplines and institutions. The video makes a powerful statement about intellectual rigor, academic honesty and racial justice. But its message cuts two ways. While Shattering the Silences demonstrates the educational benefits of faculty diversity, it also reveals the unique challenges and pressures faced by faculty of color at predominately white institutions (PWI's).

Colleges and universities are struggling - sometimes successfully, sometimes not - to create rich, diverse and intellectually vibrant climates in the classroom and on campus. Shattering the Silences does not capture all the issues of political culture in the academy. But it raises several key concerns about identity and knowledge, teaching and learning, affirmative action, and life on campus which remain troublesome and controversial, especially on predominately white campuses where the battles for racial justice are most keen. Perhaps most significantly, Shattering the Silences makes visible the onerous "cultural tax" ("Cultural taxation" is the obligation to show good citizenship towards the institution by serving its needs for ethnic representation on committees, or to demonstrate knowledge and commitment to a cultural group, which, though it may bring accolades to the institution, is not usually rewarded by the institution on whose behalf the service was performed. Padilla, A.M. 1994. "Ethnic Minority Scholars, Research, and Mentoring: Current and Future Issues." Educational Researcher, 23(4), p.24-27). so many faculty of colore must pay as the price for admission to PWIs The courageous and gifted scholars in Shattering the Silences lay bare their joys and sorrows, their passions and pain, and their hopes and aspirations. Their stories offer viewers the opportunity to look more closely at their colleagues', their institution's and their own attempts to achieve racial diversity and academic excellence. Screenings of Shattering the Silences will stimulate open and candid discussion about how much headway has - or hasn't - been made towards inclusion, diversity and excellence on your campus. They will also help you identify institutional, departmental and individual obstacles to progress and consider specific changes and practices which might make your institution more welcoming towards faculty of color and improve their quality of life.


This Facilitator Guide will help you use Shattering the Silences as a catalyst for institutional change. It will further discussion among faculty, staff, and students (especially graduate students) about the educational benefits derived from a diverse faculty, obstacles to progress, and the strengths and weaknesses of potential remedies to the many recruiting, hiring, promotion and retention problems the film reveals.

Facilitators need to help viewers move from an examination of their own world to the world of the screen and then back again fresh with new insights and ideas. In other words, they must integrate the video screening into a larger, well-defined process of critical inquiry and action. The Pre-Screening Questions will help you define a common context and purpose for viewing while the Post-Screening Questions are designed to deepen understanding of the issues raised in the video and to apply the insights gained to the situation on your campus.

The questions and exercises have been designed to foster personal, departmental and institutional self-examination at any one of four different organizational levels or objectives. Possible settings or audiences on campus where you can productively screen the video and hold your discussion depend upon your Level of Use:


Possible Screening Settings
Level One Focus on Individual Attitudes - Exploring personal feelings and experiences about race, racism and faculty of color, or one's experience as a minority faculty member in a predominately white institution. Faculty and staff meeting or retreat, student government, classroom discussion, union meeting, multicultural center, professional association meetings.
Level Two

Focus on Department Policies and Faculty Development - Examining mentoring, retention, assessment, tenure, promotion and networking policies and practices and their impact on faculty of color.

Faculty meeting or retreat, department meeting, teaching resource center, deans council, chairs meeting, multicultural center, union meeting, trustees meeting, professional association meeting.
Level Three Focus on Department Climate and Culture - Understanding how attitudes and assumptions about specific disciplines and interdisciplinary departments and standards, research and scholarship, the canon, service, interpersonal and professional relationships, and other issues of department culture affect faculty of color. Department meeting or retreat, faculty meeting or retreat, academic senate, deans council, chairs meeting, multicultural center, professional association meeting.
Level Four Focus on the Institution - Examining the institution's mission, policies and structures and how they enhance or hinder the recruitment, promotion and retention of faculty of color. Academic senate, deans meeting or retreat, faculty and staff retreat, classroom discussion, trusteeting.


Sample Agenda - Long Format (2.5 - 3.5 hours)

  • Select and assign Pre-Screening Questions ahead of time
  • Opening remarks and introductions (if group is small).
  • Discuss ground rules, purposes, and context for the discussion and ask participants if they agree or want to add anything.
  • Dyad: "What do you want from this experience?" "What is your institution's interest in the video?" (5 minutes)
  • Ask group to share responses to the Pre-Screening Questions (10 minutes)
  • Offer background on the film (2-3 minutes)
  • Screen Shattering the Silences (90 minutes)
  • Immediate emotional responses to film shared in dyads (low-risk). Depending on the group's size and comfort level, you may want to request written responses and then read them aloud anonymously.
  • Open discussion and frame the direction(s) and goal(s) of the discussion. Refer to the Post- Viewing Questions. Move from low-risk talk about the film to high-risk talk about personal experiences and feelings.
  • Conclude by inviting each person to share his or her next step to combat institutional racism and to improve the climate for faculty of color and herself or himself. Encourage participants to think of specific and concrete actions or goals which have a time-frame for implementation. Also, urge them to build support networks to sustain their commitment and to achieve shared goals.

Sample Agenda - Short Format (60-90 minutes)

If you have a much shorter time (60-90 minutes) , it may be necessary to select excerpts of the video for presentation (see the Thematic Synopsis below). Alternatively, you can put the video "on reserve" in your media library for viewing ahead of time.

It will be important to frame the discussion explicitly to provide a clear context for the screening. Or if you have only 30-45 minutes for discussion after viewing the entire film, you may want to select one or two issues depending on the audience's interests. Sample agenda:

  • Select and assign Pre-Screening Questions ahead of time
  • Opening Remarks: Background and issues to be addressed
  • Introduction of participants (if small group)
  • Ask group to share responses to the Pre-Screening Questions
  • Ask a few questions about expectations for the video and articulate the goals for the discussion
  • Screen the selected video and ask for initial impressions (feelings and thoughts). With whom and what did they identify?
  • How do the issues addressed in the segments manifest themselves at your institution? (Select relevant questions from the Post Screening Questions; consider breaking into small groups or dyads)
  • How can the issue be better addressed? By whom?
  • Closing and summation similar to Long format Agenda


Two facilitators (at least) are ideal whenever possible, preferably a racially mixed pair (and male/female) to create safety and model trust, mutual respect and cooperation. One can focus on process and emotions while the other concentrates on flow and content. Develop a solid base of knowledge on identity development, institutional racism, race and gender relations, organizational change, interpersonal dynamics and multicultural education through readings and discussion before serving as a facilitator (the readings and resources appended to this Guide will help). Finally, the facilitator(s) should be sensitive to her or his own hot buttons around the topics.

It is the facilitator's role to establish a safe space with ground rules for the participants and a context for thoughtful and productive conversation. The following are suggestions for creating a healthy atmosphere. Ask the group to:

  • Break into dyads periodically to talk so that everyone has an opportunity to speak and be heard. Dyads should be short, with each person having equal time to speak and to listen.
  • Use "I" statements when speaking.
  • Do any of the terms below need to be defined or clarified ahead of time? race, gender, and sexual orientation, racism, institutional racism, race and ethnicity, affirmative action, multicultural education, white supremacy, integration, assimilation, acculturation, self-determination, diversity, equity, equality, privilege, justice, discrimination, balkanization, excellence, sexism, heterosexism, objective criteria, ideology, power, campus culture
  • Acknowledge that each of us brings different perspectives and experiences and is at a different stage of development in addressing individual, interpersonal and institutional racism.
  • Addressing racism and white supremacy can be overwhelming on a personal and institutional level. It will be important to allow people to focus on one or two small doable activities or personal efforts and expand from there.
  • Balance the need to discuss tangible issues or behaviors and to explore feelings. The culture of U.S. education tends to privilege the intellect and devalue emotions, so it is important to draw on both the cognitive and affective domains. People should be urged to be open to ambiguity, complexity and apparent contradiction.
  • The discussion should be part of a larger process of institutional change and a part of the institution's strategic plan. It is but one step.

You might want to consider bringing in a professional with experience using Shattering the Silences to lead discussions on your campus. One such person is Dr. Mildred Garcia, Associate Vice Provost at Arizona State University West and an advisor to the video production. She can be reached at Millieg@asu.edu.

(Some of the above was drawn from the Skin Deep Study Guide, an excellent video and resource, also available from California Newsreel.)


The following menu of questions will help define a common context or framework for screening Shattering the Silences, a point from which to view and a purpose for viewing. They will help elicit participants' own sometimes unspoken attitudes and preconceptions about diversity and the situation on your campus. Choose the questions most relevant to your Use Level and Objectives. Assign the questions ahead of time if possible. Some of them will require research. You can use the questions in any one of several ways:

  • Ask participants to reflect upon the questions, then discuss them as a group prior to the screening.
  • Ask participants to write up their answers, then share them with the group prior to screening.
  • Use the questions as points to engage readings (selected from the bibliography appended to this Guide).

Ask participants to share their responses with the group. You might want to list the different replies, but refrain from discussing or debating the answers in any detail now. The point is to help bring into the open attitudes and preconceptions about the issue prior to screening so that:

  • Your audience watches the video with an awareness of the filters through which they're viewing and an understanding of their own and the institution's interest in the video.
  • Your audience watches the video critically, actively, and purposefully looking for insights which either affirm or challenge preconceptions and are applicable to conditions on your campus.


1. Are you comfortable talking about race and racism? What makes you uncomfortable about discussing race relations?

2. Recount a memorable experience with or as a minority faculty member at, a predominately white institution.

3. How do you think your racial, gender, sexual orientation, and class background informs your views of race relations? What experiences have you had with racism (personal or professional)? What did you do? Why? What results did you achthe academy? To what extent do you believe they are mutually exclusive or inclusive?

5. Does your school's mission statement include a commitment to diversity and a diverse faculty? What does it say? Is this commitment a publicly stated priority of your institution's leader? and how has he or she acted on it? Are people and departments held accountable for diversity?

6. What is the history of recruiting, hiring, retaining and promoting faculty of color? What do the data reveal (current, and past 10 years)? In which departments and at what level does your institution employ faculty of color (assistant / associate / full professor)? Where are people of color located in the administrative structure (including the board of trustees, administration, faculty and staff)?

7. How has the debate over affirmative action hiring manifested itself at your institution? What are the key issues? How do different constituencies on campus divide over the debate?

8. To what extent do you believe faculty diversity on your campus is being pursued:

    A. as a remedy for past and present discrimination
    B. because of the school's commitment to social justice
    C. because of diversity's educational benefits
    D. to improve interpersonal relations on campus
    E. because of "political" reasons
    F. other (explain)


Use this Thematic Guide to excerpt specific parts of the video for reference, repeat screening, or to select segments if you do not have time to screen the entire program. The numbers indicate the beginning and ending running times in minutes and seconds of each section with 00'00" corresponding to the first frame of the opening "A Film From California Newsreel" title. You may also find it helpful to refer to the transcript of Shattering the Silences. The entire transcript can be found on California Newsreel's web site at www.newsreel.org.

THEME ONE: Identity and Knowledge, Scholarship and Curricula
Questions of identity apment of curricula are addressed in these video segments. Sample issues: What is the role of identity in the understanding of and creation of knowledge, scholarship and curricula? How have scholars of color contributed to their discipline? Why is ethnic studies important to the curriculum? How is it treated as a second class discipline and area of research? Why and how is new knowledge important for the academy as a whole?

Excerpt 1:
IN (00'00") Opening: California Newsreel title
OUT (11'25") Narrator: "Saragoza's research..."

Excerpt 2:
IN (18'29") Narrator: "However, the teaching of ethnic studies..."
OUT(22'34") Student #2: "You have."

Excerpt 3:
IN (22'36") Narrator: "Shawn Wong is one of..."
OUT (29'04") Narrator: "Wong's personal search..."

Excerpt 4:
IN (29'07") Hine: "If we want a new world..."
OUT(36'55") Hine: "I think scholars of color..."

Excerpt 5:
IN (47'03") Hine: "There's a very real cultural war..."
OUT (49'17") Kelly: "The point is..."

THEME TWO: Personal and Professional Lives
Here, Shattering the Silences focuses on the personal and professional experiences of faculty of color. Sample issues: What does their background and heritage mean to the scholars? How important is mentoring for success as a scholar? How and why are scholars of color subject to overwork, stress and other forms of "cultural taxation" at their institutions? What specific issues do faculty women of color confront? What are sources of strength and inspiration for the scholars?

Excerpt 1:
IN (11'53") Narrator: "Just as Saragoza..."
(18'18") Narrator: "In his speeches and articles..."

Excerpt 2:
IN (37'54") Narrator: "Recently Dr. Hine..."
OUT (40'10") Hine: "At some fundamental level..."

Excerpt 3:
IN (40'12") Kelly: "I grew up..."
OUT (43'20") Painter: "I'm not responsible..."

Excerpt 4:
IN (44'44") Narrator: "Every year Kelly..."
OUT (46'52") Kelly: "But that's part of the drive..."

Excerpt 5:
IN (65'57") Narrator: "The long hours..."
OUT (71'27") Hine: "So you become happy by..."

Excerpt 6:
IN (74'34") Kelly: "A Lot of students..."
OUT (84'28") Close of film.

THEME THREE: Teaching, Learning and Student-Faculty Relations
These segments explore faculty student relations and the educational benefits of racial diversity. Sample issues: How do faculty connect with students and course content? Why does race matter in teaching students? How do faculty engage the students with the course material? How do some faculty of color bridge different cultures? What are the challenges and opportunities for faculty of color teaching at your college?

Excerpt 1:
IN (37'08") Hine: "Just off the top..."
OUT (37'53") Hine: "Gangs, adolescents..."

Excerpt 2:
IN (43'23") Narrator: "Kelly is completing..."
OUT (44'37") Kelly "I'd like to think that..."

Excerpt 3:
IN (49'18") Miguel Algarin: "Chanting..."
OUT (57'19") Algarin: "Both Shakespeare and..."

Excerpt 4:
IN (71'47") Algarin: "I'm not isolated..."
OUT (74'33") Student: "I don't know..."

THEME FOUR: Affirmative Action
This section looks at affirmative action on campus. Sample issues: Why is race important in considering candidates for jobs? Why is race such a controversial topic in hiring? Why is race often contrasted with quality or qualifications? Why does race only get discussed when speaking about people of color and not white people? What can be done to improve the representation and quality of life of faculty of color at institutions?

Excerpt 1:
IN (57'48") Narrator: "Despite the small numbers..."
OUT (75'55") Cuadraz: "And they left..."

AFTER SCREENING: Points for Discussion and Action

After screening the video, choose topics for discussion most germane to your own campus's situation and the interests of those participating in your event. Be sure to focus the conversation (but not too narrowly). The sample questions below are organized according to Level of Use and Objectives (see page 3, Using Shattering the Silences on Your Campus). But issues often overlap so be certain to review all the questions and feel free to mix and match according to what's best for you.

Level One Questions: Focus on Individual Attitudes

1. The first student in the film complains, "All the professors I've had have been predominately white males and I'm only getting that perspective from them so I'd really appreciate a different perspective." Why are a broad range of perspectives, class offerings, texts, and face-to-face interaction important to education? Why might the race and gender of faculty be a factor in whether different perspectives are offered? Are students on your campus exposed to a diversity of ideas and perspectives?

2. John Searle declares, "Forget about your race, it's largely irrelevant to your intellectual development." Do you believe race relevant or irrelevant to your own intellectual development? To what extent does your racial identity open new possibilities for inquiry - or limit and constrain your intellectual growth?

3. Some argue of a diverse faculty accrues from ts well. For example, a diverse faculty would challenge the stereotypical assumption of many white students that black people all think alike. What do you think? Do you see evidence of this on your campus?

4. Nell Painter says, "I think it's the sense that white people belong on top and they shouldn't have to give up anything for anybody." Do you agree that this is an underlying reason many white people oppose affirmative action? Why or why not? How do you feel about affirmative action? What would the end of affirmative action mean to your institution.

5. Miguel Algarin says, "I can go to school and teach the children of the janitors, the judges, the lawyers and doctors of Jersey their culture and then come back and create mine." Do you think it important to connect with one's own culture and the cultures of others? What intellectual and personal bridges have you built by crossing cultures? What barriers need to be overcome and how?

6. Are most of your personal and professional networks dominated by one racial or cultural group? What have you done to support or expand your network of relationships in meaningful ways?

7. Shawn Wong points out, "Asian American is obviously a political term. It was a term of self determination that described not only your sense of self but a political sense of self too...as a person that belonged to a community. One that is defined by your experience in America." If Asian American is a political term, are all other ethnic/racial group names political terms (including European Americans)? Why? How is your ethnic or racial group defined by its experience in America? How does it define you? Who does the defining? To what extent is it liberating or limiting to define yourself by your group(s)?

8. What have you done - and what more can you do - to deepen your commitment to racial justice and combat in? Can you list three actions you can take as an individual?

Level Two Questions: Focus on Department Policies and Faculty Development

1. One of the students at the beginning of the film says, "You just can't have a good faculty unless it's diverse." Do you agree? Enumerate the educational benefits of a diverse faculty. Discuss not only intergroup relations, but also institutional satisfaction, involvement, and academic growth. What are the costs of not having a diverse faculty? Do the advantages of a diverse faculty benefit all students, or only students of color? Why?

2. John Searle voices a popular criticism of affirmative action: "If you're given a choice in faculty hiring between a superior white male, let's say, and a not so good minority member of a target minority, you're supposed to choose the less qualified person." Do you agree? Is this how decisions are usually made on your campus? How is "quality" defined on your campus and by whom? What do people mean when they say they are looking for a "qualified minority?" Do What is the hiring, tenure and promotion record of the department? Is there a commitment to diversity and excellence? How are junior faculty introduced to the department and mentored through tenure and promotion? What specific efforts (policies and practices) have improved the recruitment, selection, hiring and retention of faculty of color?

4. Gloria Cuadraz claims, "One of the difficulties has been having minority candidates seriously considered for the positions. It's lobbying, it's political work..." Is this the case on your campus? To what extent is hiring about politics and lobbying? Are candidates of color taken less seriously? How does this view affect hiring, tenure and promotion? What steps can be taken to change this?

5. The video illustrates the unique service burden many faculty of color carry, especially advising responsibilities and committee service, and that these commitments can get in the way of one's research. Is this the case in your department? To what extent do department hiring, promotion, and tenure criteria value service? Is it weighted appropriately? (see also Level Four, Question 7)

6. How is membership in ethnic-based professions or ethnic subcommittees of national organizations valued? How are ethnic-based journals and publications viewed (e.g. Journal of Negro Education, Journal of Asian American Studies, Journal of Multicultural Counseling, etc.), especially during tenure review?

Level Three Questions: Focus on Department Culture and Curricula

1. Alex Saragoza complains, "I'm associated with Chicano Studies, where people...assume we do second rate scholarship and third rate research and...fourth rate teaching..." Why is Chicano Studies (or other ethnic studies) devalued? Is this true for ethnic studies on your campus? How do these attitudes inform the perceptions of other minority teaching and research held by some white faculty on your campus? What can be done to challenge these attitudes?

2. Robin Kelley explains, "Multiculturalism was an effort to revise the curriculum...Who makes the determination as to what is great literature or great scholarship?" How is the scholarship, service and teaching of faculty of color viewed by colleagues and senior department members? Do faculty include scholarship and works by people of color in their courses? Who determines what merits the appellation "great scholarship" in your department? Does the great scholarship include works by scholars of color? What can be done to address this issue?

3. Robin Kelley says, "A professor might say to them, ‘Oh you should talk to Professor Kelly,' as if I am an expert on everything that has to do with black people period." What does it mean to be "the minority expert"? Why does this bother Dr. Kelly? How is this incident and Robin Kelly's workload reflective of cultural taxation? What can be done to mitigate this problem?

4. David Wilkins complains of ostracism and isolation on campus: "I never felt completely welcomed by the department at any particular point. In fact, I've been there for five years and I've only had dinner at two of the faculty's homes." Why is this significant? How important are informal networks and friendships among colleagues? Does this isolation of minority faculty occur in your department or are there professional and social networks among faculty which regularly and meaningfully cross racial and cultural groups? How might your department address Dr. Wilkins' concern?

5. What other assumptions about the department and discipline empower or marginalize faculty of color? What are the policies and practices regarding racial and sexual harassment? How often are scholars of color invited to present to or by the department? Are faculty encouraged to develop intellectual networks and research areas or partnerships which address race and culture?

6. David Wilkins states, "The contrast is that with the outsiders there's the notion that somehow because they're on the outside looking in they're more objective." Why are insider and outsider perspectives both important? How have you seen that expressed in your classes? What are the dominant and subordinate views in your courses? Whose views are considered objective and whose subjective? Why?

Level Four Questions: Focus on the Institution

1. One of the students at the beginning of the film says, "You just can't have a good faculty unless it's diverse." Do you agree? Enumerate the educational benefits of a diverse faculty. Discuss not only intergroup relations but also institutional satisfaction, involvement, and academic growth. What are the costs of not having a diverse faculty? Do the advantages of a diverse faculty benefit all students, or only students of color?

2. How do racial diversity and racial justice embrace and affirm the educational mission of your institution as defined in your mission statement? Is diversity a publicly stated priority of your institution's leader? Does he or she walk the talk, i.e. what assessment measures are used and by whom? How are people and departments held accountable for diversity and rewarded for success?

3. Gloria Cuadraz recounts her experience in graduate school: "I did not feel like I belonged and I was struggling. I was struggling to connect. And for someone like myself who has felt connected their entire life to be asked to survive in an environment where you do not feel that you belong, it was too overbearing for me." What role did race and gender play in Dr. Cuadraz's experiences in graduate school? Have you ever felt this way? If yes, what did you do? To what extent do graduate students on your campus face similar problems? What can be done institutionally to reduce their disaffection?

4. Shawn Wong says, "I decided I would major in something called Asian American literature, except there were no teachers, no assignments, no credits, no classes." Why not? Can you identify significant omissions in your curriculum?

5. Darlene Clark Hine claims, "Historians can write about a history of anything but the key is the historian must decide that thing, event or person or group is worthy of historical investigation, and apparently no one had ever thought black women in Indiana were worth studying." Why was it important to write about black women in Indiana? What makes a subject historically significant and worthy of scholarly investigation? How do race and gender inform the research you conduct or the papers you write?

6. Dr. Hine goes on to add: "I think scholars of color have enriched about every discipline because of the new questions they have asked and the new approaches they have taken." Do you agree? Can you cite instances where faculty of color have enriched your departments and disciplines?

7. Robin Kells for assistance...The burden of being a black presence falls on a handful of people. At NYU I'm chairing the Latin American search committee. I'm on the American Studies search committee. I'm on the graduate admissions and fellowship committee. I'm on the third-year review committee. I'm on the graduate exam committee. I'm on the minority recruitment and retention committee." Gloria Cuadraz adds: "I have seen colleagues, Chicanas, Latinas, constantly working and so in demand by the needs of the institution that they are not able to submit their research in time to get tenure." Do minority faculty share a similar advising and service burden on your campus? Do they appear especially stressed and overworked? Are there any issues you believe are specific to women of color only? Does your hiring, promotion, and tenure criteria value service appropriately? What other steps can be taken to ease the workload and improve the quality of life of overstressed minority faculty?

8. Gloria Cuadraz states, "I have the tenure clock ticking the same time I have the biological clock ticking. I may be forced to choose and I think I know which one I'm going to choose: the tenure clock." What does her comment reveal about the experience of women in the academy compared with men? What would you do if this choice were put before you? Are women faculty at your institution forced to make a similar choice? Is it different for minority women? What can be done to eliminate this "choice" and improve options for women faculty?

9. Darlene Clark Hine declares, "My generation of black women academicians and women of color academicians is really a sacrificial generation." What does she mean? Do you agree? Why women of color? and to what extent does her statement pertain to men of color? What steps can be taken to better the situation on your campus?

"Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web, we do tou ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connect.
--Chief Seattle

APPENDIX A: Faculty Featured in Shattering the Silences

  • Miguel Algarin, Associate Professor of English, Rutgers University
  • Gloria Cuadraz, Assistant Professor of American Studies, Arizona State University West
  • Darlene Clark Hine, John A. Hannah Professor of History, Michigan State University
  • Robin Kelley, Professor of History, New York University
  • Nell Painter, Edwards Professor of History, Princeton University
  • Alex Saragoza, Associate Professor, of Ethnic Studies, University of California, Berkeley
  • David Wilkins, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Arizona
  • Shawn Wong, Professor of English, University of Washington

APPENDIX B: Resources

    Institutional Planning and Diversity

  • Alger, Jonathan. "The Educational Value of Diversity" (originally published in Academe) can be found on DiversityWeb under the Leaders Guide section of Institutional Vision, Leadership and Systemic Change. http://www.diversityweb.org/
  • Carnevale, Anthoiverse Work Force. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Cox, Taylor, Jr. (1993). Cultural Diversity in Organizations: Theory, Research and Practice. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
  • Cross, Elsie, et al. (Eds.). (1994). The Promise of Diversity: Over 40 Voices Discuss Strategies for Eliminating Discrimination in Organizations. Chicago: Irwin Professional Publishing.
  • Garcia, Mildred (Ed.). (1997). Affirmative Action's Testament of Hope: Strategies for a New Era in Higher Education. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
  • Hayles, V. Robert and Russell, Armida Mendez. (1997). The Diversity Directive: Why Some Initiatives Fail and What to Do About It. Chicago: Irwin Professional Publishing.
  • Hurtado, Sylvia, et al. (1996). Improving the Climate for Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. Report to the Common Destiny Alliance. College Park, MD.
  • Loden, Marilyn. (1996). Implementing Diversity. Chicago: Irwin Professional Publishing.
  • Musil, Caryn McTighe, et al. (1995). Diversity in Higher Education: A Work in Progress. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Colleges and Universities.

    Higher Education and Race / Racism

  • Altbach, Philip G. Altbach and Lomotey, Kofi (Eds.). (1991). The Racial Crisis in American Higher Education. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
  • Bowser, Benjamin P.; Auletta, Gale S. And Jones, Terry. (1993). Confronting Diversity Issues on Campus. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Cheatham, Harold E. And Associates. (1991). Cultural Pluralism on Campus. Washington, D.C.: American College Personnel Association.
  • Cuadraz, Gloria, "Experience of Multiple Marginality: A Case Study of Chicana ‘Scholarship Women,'" in Turner, Carolyn et al, editors, Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education (1996). Simon and Schuster.
  • Ezorsky, Gertrude. (1991). Racism and Justice: The Case for Affirmative Action. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Stage, Frances K. And Manning, Kathleen. (1992). "Enhancing the Multicultural Campus Environment: A Cultural Broker," Directions for Student Services, Number 60. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
  • "The Project on Campus Community and Diversity ofof Schools and Colleges." (1994). Dialogues for Diversity: Community and Ethnicity on Campus. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.
  • Turner, Caroline, et.al (Eds.). (1996). Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. Needham Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Custom Publishing.

    Departmental / Faculty

  • Baez, Benjamin and Centra, John. (1995). Tenure, Promotion, and Reappointment: Legal and Administrative Implications. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development.
  • Bergmann, Barbara. (1996). In Defense of Affirmative Action. New York: Basic Books.
  • Gainen, Joanne and Boice, Robert. (1993). Building a Diverse Faculty. New Directions for Teaching and Lea. (1995). Empowering the Faculty: Mentoring Redirected and Renewed. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 3. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development.
  • Padilla, Raymond and Chavez, Rudolfo (eds.). (1995). The Leaning Ivory Tower: Latino Professors in American Universities. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
  • Tack, Martha Wingard, and Patitu, Carol Logan. (1992). Faculty Job Satisfaction: Women and Minorities in Peril. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development.
  • Tierney, William G., and Rhoads, Robert. (1994). Faculty Socialization as Cultural Process: A Mirror of Institutional Commitment. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 93-6. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development.
  • Tierney, William G. And Bensimon, Estela Mara. (1996). Promotion and Tenure: Community and Socialization in Academe. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Washington, Valora and Harvey, William. (1989).
  • Washington, Valora and Harvey William. (198 Hispanic Faculty at Predominantly White Institutions. ASHE ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development.

    Individual Development

  • Dalton, Harlon L. (1995). Racial Healing: Confronting the Fear Between Blacks and Whites. New York: Doubleday.
  • Featherston, Elena (ed). (1994). Skin Deep: Women Writing on Color, Culture and Identity. Freedom, CA: Crossing Press.
  • Ford, Clyde W. (1994). We Can All Get Along: 50 Steps You Can Take to Help End Racism at Home, at Work, in Your Community. New York: Dell Publishing.
  • hooks, bell. (1995). Killing Rage: Ending Racism. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
  • Hurtado, Aida. (1996). The Color of Privilege : Three Blasphemies on Race and Feminism. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
  • Kivel, Paul. (199Justice. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.
  • Lawrence, Charles R., III and Matsuda, Mari J. (1997). We Won't Go Back: Making the Case for Affirmative Action. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

    Teaching, Learning and Curriculum

  • Adams, Marianne, Bell, et al. (Eds.) (1997). Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice: A Sourcebook. New York: Routledge.
  • Butler, Johnella and Walter, John (ed). (1991). Transforming the Curriculum : Ethnic Studies and Women's Studies. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
  • Fiol-Matta, Liza and Chamberlain, Mariam K. (Eds.) (1994). Women of Color and the Multicultural Curriculum. New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York.
  • Friedman, Ellen, et al. (Eds.). (1996). Creating an Inclusive College Curriculum: A Teaching Sourcebook for the New Jersey Project. New York: teachers College Press.
  • hooks, bell. (1994) Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom. New York: Routledge.
  • Levine, Lawrence. (1996). The Opening of the American Mind: Canon, Culture and History. Boston: Beacon Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  • Roof, Judith and Wiegman, Robyn. (1995). Who Can Speak? Authority and Critical Identity. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

    Organizational Resources

  • Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U)
    1818 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    (202) 387-3760
    Initiatives addressing race and diversity. Excellent resources include publications and regular conferences.
  • American Council on Education (ACE)
    1 Dupont Circle, NW Washington, DC 20036
    (202) 939-9395
    The Office of Minorities in Higher Education generates outstanding resources, including publications, an annual status report on minorities in higher education, and a biannual meeting ("Educating One-Third of a Nation").
  • American Association of University Professors (AAUP)
    1012 14th Street N.W. Suite 500 Washington, DC 20005-3465
    (202) 737-5900
    Resources on recruitment, tenure, and promotion. Also have a standing committee on minority concerns.
  • California Newsreel
    Excellent video resources for campus diversity, including Shattering the Silences
  • National Association for Ethnic Studies (NAES)
    Scholarly association on ethnic studies teaching, research and curricula.
  • American Association for Affirmative Action AAAA
    Network and resource for affirmative action officers. Have an annual meeting and regional chapters.


  • Author, Facilitator Guide: Parker Johnson
  • Acknowledgments: Caryn McTighe Musil, Michelle Gilliard, Gloria Cuadraz, Mildred Garcia
  • Shattering the Silences Producer/Director: Gail Pellett, Stanley Nelson
  • Project Director for California Newsreel: Larry Adelman

California Newsreel

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