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Haki Madhubuti and Sonia Sanchez stay closely involved with their community and continue to influence a new generation of poets.

Selected Bibliography

  • Black Men, Obsolete, Single, Dangerous? Essays in Discovery, Solution & Hope. Chicago: Third World Press, 1990.

  • Book of Life. Chicago: Third World Press, 1992.

  • Claiming Earth: Race, Rage, Rape, Redemption: Blacks Seeking a Culture of Enlightened Empowerment. Chicago: Third World Press, 1994.

  • Confusion by Any Other Name: Essays Exploring the Negative Impact of the Blackman's Guide to Understanding the Blackwoman. Chicago: Third World Press, 1992.

  • Developmental Manual for Young Black Males. Chicago: Third World Press, 1996.

  • Don't Cry, Scream. Chicago: Third World Press, 1992.

  • From Plan to Planet: Life Studies: The Need for Afrikan Minds & Institutions. Chicago: Third World Press, 1992.

  • Heart Love. Chicago: Third World Press, 1998.

  • Ground Work. Chicago: Third World Press, 1996.

  • Killing Memory, Seeking Ancestors. Chicago: Third World Press, 1992.

  • Why L.A. Happened: Implications of the '92 Los Angeles Rebellion. Chicago: Third World Press, 1993.

Discussion Questions

1. How was his childhood as Don Luther Lee different than his adulthood as Haki Madhubuti? Give evidences of this from the poems he chose to read.

2. Compare the way his family influenced Madhubuti in his craft to the influence of family on Naomi Long Madgett's writing. Which is closer to the way your family has influenced you and your creativity?

3. Madhubuti states that the third renaissance of Black writing will be more lasting? Why? Do you agree?

4. Madhubuti and Sonia Sanchez say they have "the scars." What do you understand them to mean?


Haki R. Madhubuti, born Don L. Lee, moved to Chicago as a teenager, thus beginning a period of growth, service and commitment that would have a significant impact on the literary and cultural life of Chicago. Madhubuti, one of the most distinctive and searing voices in contemporary poetry, has divided his time among a variety of activities. Best known as a poet, he works as an essayist, critic, publisher, social activist and educator. He is the founder and editor of Third World Press and Black Books Bulletin and directs the Institute of Positive Education, an organization that brings nation-building ideas to the youth of Chicago. A founding member of the Organization of Black American Culture Writers Workshop (OBAC), he honed his early poetic style in the circle of other OBAC poets such as Gwendolyn Brooks, Carolyn Rodgers, Johari Amiri, and Sterling Plumpp. His books include Think Black; Black Pride; Don't Cry, Scream; We Walk the Way of the New World and Dynamite Voices: Black Poets of the 1960's. His more recent work includes Claiming Earth: Race, Rage, Rape, Redemption (1995), Heartlove: Wedding and Love Poems (1998), and editing Million Man March/Day of Absence: A Commemorative Anthology (1996). He is currently a professor of English and director of the Gwendolyn Brooks Center at Chicago State University.


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